Genetic engineering is that process in which biotechnology is used to change the genetic cell formation of an organism. It aims at improving the traits of an organism by adding new ones that don't exist in that particular organism. The current market of genetically engineered organisms includes insect resistant plants, herbicides tolerant plants and crops which its oil content is modified. An organism that exists as a result of genetic engineering is referred to as the genetically modified organism. The techniques of genetic engineering have gained tremendous applications in various fields that include industrial biotechnology, research, medicine and agriculture.
Genetic engineering has brought a new light into the creation of plants, micro-organisms and animals. The question, however, remains whether it is right or wrong to do so? The genetically modified organisms (GMO) can contaminate our environment and the generations to come in a manner that we cannot control or foresee when these organisms are left to spread and interbreed with the existing natural organisms. The release of these organisms is a major threat to the society since once they are released one cannot recall them which can cause ‘genetic pollution.’ The public have not been well informed of any sort of genetic engineering ingredients that have been used in order to archive a certain organism. This makes the public not to avoid them even with the controversial labelling in some countries. Genetic engineering doesn’t have any interest in ensuring that the biological diversity is respected and protected as mankind only global heritage.
As mentioned early on genetic engineering finds usefulness in a number of fields to solve and assist in a number of ways. Medicine sector have benefited greatly with the use of this technique since it is used to manufacture drugs, assist in laboratory research, gene therapy and also the tin creation of model animals. Genetic engineering is crucial in manufacturing of insulin, human albumin, human growth hormones, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. In research fields, model animals are needed and this is archive through genetic engineering. These model animals have been used in the study, research and model cancer, obesity, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis, aging among many other diseases with the potential cures also tested by use of the same animal model. Genetic engineering of humans usually referred as Gene therapy has been helpful to humans whereby the defective genes have been replaced with the effective genes. Although gene therapy is helpful in the treatment sector, there are still some concerns about whether the technique will be used in the modification of human beings’ appearance, behaviour, intelligence or character.
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